Physical activity and dietary interventions in breast cancer survivors: A systematic review of the maintenance of behaviour change outcomes (#640)
Introduction: The efficacy of physical activity and dietary interventions in producing short-term (end-of-intervention) behaviour change among breast cancer survivors is supported by a large evidence base. However, no review to date has systematically evaluated the extent to which such outcomes can be maintained post-intervention. This review aimed to determine: (1) the proportion of physical activity and dietary interventions in breast cancer survivors that reported on and achieved successful post-intervention maintenance outcomes; and (2) the sample, intervention, and methodological characteristics common among trials that reported successful maintenance outcomes.
Methods: A structured search of PubMed, CINAHL, Medline via Ovid, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and PsycInfo was conducted for articles published until March 2012. Included studies had to: evaluate a randomised controlled trial of a physical activity and/or dietary behaviour change intervention that included breast cancer survivors (inclusively or exclusively; during or post-treatment); and report on between-group differences of behavioural outcomes at end-of-intervention and at least three months post-intervention.
Results: The initial search resulted in 1298 publications. Of 63 identified studies that reported on intervention outcomes, 11 (17%) also reported on maintenance outcomes. Five of these 11 studies reported successful maintenance of behaviour change (four physical activity and one combined physical activity and dietary intervention). Due to the limited number and heterogeneity of the five studies, few commonalities were identified.
Conclusions: This systematic review of physical activity and dietary interventions targeting breast cancer survivors indicates that reporting on maintenance of behaviour change is rare. There is thus a pressing need to direct more attention to reporting on post-intervention outcomes. Doing so will be important in informing the development of interventions to improve longer-term health and well-being outcomes for the growing numbers of breast cancer survivors, and to identify intervention strategies that successfully promote the maintenance of health behaviour change.